Andrei Ardentov
Program Systems Institute of RAS
Publications:
Ardentov A. A., Karavaev Y. L., Yefremov K. S.
Euler Elasticas for Optimal Control of the Motion of Mobile Wheeled Robots: the Problem of Experimental Realization
2019, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 312328
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the problem of optimal path planning for a mobile wheeled robot. Euler elasticas, which ensure minimization of control actions, are considered as optimal trajectories. An algorithm for constructing controls that realizes the motion along the trajectory in the form of an Euler elastica is presented. Problems and special features of the application of this algorithm in practice are discussed. In particular, analysis is made of speedup and deceleration along the elastica, and of the influence of the errors made in manufacturing the mobile robot on the precision with which the prescribed trajectory is followed. Special attention is also given to the problem of forming optimal trajectories of motion along Euler elasticas to a preset point at different angles of orientation. Results of experimental investigations are presented.

Ardentov A. A., Le Donne E., Sachkov Y. L.
SubFinsler Geodesics on the Cartan Group
2019, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 3660
Abstract
This paper is a continuation of the work by the same authors on the
Cartan group equipped with the subFinsler $\ell_\infty$ norm.
We start by giving a detailed presentation of the structure of bangbang extremal trajectories.
Then we prove upper bounds on the number of switchings on bangbang minimizers.
We prove that any normal extremal is either bangbang, or singular, or mixed.
Consequently, we study mixed extremals.
In particular, we prove that every two points can be connected by a piecewise smooth
minimizer, and we give a uniform bound on the number of such pieces.

Ardentov A. A., Sachkov Y. L.
Maxwell Strata and Cut Locus in the SubRiemannian Problem on the Engel Group
2017, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 909–936
Abstract
We consider the nilpotent leftinvariant subRiemannian structure on the Engel group. This structure gives a fundamental local approximation of a generic rank 2 subRiemannian structure on a 4manifold near a generic point (in particular, of the kinematic models of a car with a trailer). On the other hand, this is the simplest subRiemannian structure of step three. We describe the global structure of the cut locus (the set of points where geodesics lose their global optimality), the Maxwell set (the set of points that admit more than one minimizer), and the intersection of the cut locus with the caustic (the set of conjugate points along all geodesics). The group of symmetries of the cut locus is described: it is generated by a oneparameter group of dilations $\mathbb{R}_+$ and a discrete group of reflections $\mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2 \times \mathbb{Z}_2$. The cut locus admits a stratification with 6 threedimensional strata, 12 twodimensional strata, and 2 onedimensional strata. Threedimensional strata of the cut locus are Maxwell strata of multiplicity 2 (for each point there are 2 minimizers). Twodimensional strata of the cut locus consist of conjugate points. Finally, onedimensional strata are Maxwell strata of infinite multiplicity, they consist of conjugate points as well. Projections of subRiemannian geodesics to the 2dimensional plane of the distribution are Euler elasticae. For each point of the cut locus, we describe the Euler elasticae corresponding to minimizers coming to this point. Finally, we describe the structure of the optimal synthesis, i. e., the set of minimizers for each terminal point in the Engel group.

Mashtakov A. P., Ardentov A. A., Sachkov Y. L.
Relation Between Euler’s Elasticae and SubRiemannian Geodesics on $SE(2)$
2016, vol. 21, nos. 78, pp. 832839
Abstract
In this note we describe a relation between Euler’s elasticae and subRiemannian geodesics on $SE(2)$. Analyzing the Hamiltonian system of the Pontryagin maximum principle, we show that these two curves coincide only in the case when they are segments of a straight line.

Ardentov A. A.
Controlling of a Mobile Robot with a Trailer and Its Nilpotent Approximation
2016, vol. 21, nos. 78, pp. 775791
Abstract
This work studies a number of approaches to solving the motion planning problem for a mobile robot with a trailer. Different control models of carlike robots are considered from the differentialgeometric point of view. The same models can also be used for controlling a mobile robot with a trailer. However, in cases where the position of the trailer is of importance, i.e., when it is moving backward, a more complex approach should be applied. At the end of the article, such an approach, based on recent works in subRiemannian geometry, is described. It is applied to the problem of reparking a trailer and implemented in the algorithm for parking a mobile robot with a trailer.
