Bai Y., Svinin M., Yamamoto M.
Dynamics-Based Motion Planning for a Pendulum-Actuated Spherical Rolling Robot
2018, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 372-388
This paper deals with the dynamics and motion planning for a spherical rolling robot with a pendulum actuated by two motors. First, kinematic and dynamic models for the rolling robot are introduced. In general, not all feasible kinematic trajectories of the rolling carrier are dynamically realizable. A notable exception is when the contact trajectories on the sphere and on the plane are geodesic lines. Based on this consideration, a motion planning strategy for complete reconfiguration of the rolling robot is proposed. The strategy consists of two trivial movements and a nontrivial maneuver that is based on tracing multiple spherical triangles. To compute the sizes and the number of triangles, a reachability diagram is constructed. To define the control torques realizing the rest-to-rest motion along the geodesic lines, a geometric phase-based approach has been employed and tested under simulation. Compared with the minimum effort optimal control, the proposed technique is less computationally expensive while providing similar system performance, and thus it is more suitable for real-time applications.