# Formal Stability, Stability for Most Initial Conditions and Diffusion in Analytic Systems of Differential Equations

*2023, Volume 28, Number 3, pp. 251-264*

Author(s):

**Kozlov V. V.**

An example of an analytic system of differential equations in $\mathbb{R}^6$ with an equilibrium
formally stable and stable for most initial conditions is presented. By means of a divergent formal transformation this system is reduced to a Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. Almost all its phase space is foliated by three-dimensional invariant tori carrying quasi-periodic trajectories.
These tori do not fill all phase space. Though the ``gap'' between these tori has zero measure, this set is everywhere dense in $\mathbb{R}^6$ and unbounded phase trajectories are dense in this gap. In particular, the formally stable equilibrium is Lyapunov unstable. This behavior of phase trajectories is quite consistent with the diffusion in nearly integrable systems. The proofs are based on the Poincaréâ€“Dulac theorem, the theory of almost periodic functions, and on some facts from the theory of inhomogeneous Diophantine approximations. Some open problems related to the example are presented.

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